D3a - Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Ambientali - Guida degli insegnamenti (Syllabus)
Basic knowledge of general biology, chemistry.
The didactic method is based on ppt/pdf lectures (6 ECTS) (provided to the students at the end of the course), projection of thematic videos, recognizing anatomic organs with 3D animal models, and guided tours in livestock farms, dairy plants and slaughtering houses will be organized to put into practice what the students have learned in class (3 ECTS).
Knowledge and understanding.
The course enables students to acquire the fundamental knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of the main apparatus of the animal species producing meat, milk and eggs for human consumption; chemical and nutritional composition of raw animal materials (meat, milk, eggs) in relation to their use in the food industry.
Applying knowledge and understanding.
The main aim of this course is to provide a fully development ability of the students in recognizing the most important species and breed of interest in animal production systems, their physiology in relation to their productive performance (meat milk and eggs), the composition of animal raw materials, their qualitative aspects and relationships with their attitude to the food processing industry.
(a) making judgements: capability of identify the information needed to manage farmed animals and their products; (b) communications: capability of clearly and exhaustively communicate notions, ideas, problems and technical solutions to interlocutors, either professional or not, representative of the various and specific competencies in the management of farmed animals, and in the management of animals raw materials in processing field (veterinarians, chemists, animal nutritionists, technical assistance, food technologists, nutritionists, etc.).
1. Course presentation. Specific terms of anatomy and physiology, anatomical planes.
Tissues: epithelial, secretive and connective tissues; cartilaginous and bony and ossification; muscular tissue (smooth, cardiac, skeletal); blood and lymph (1 ECTS).
2. Anatomy and physiology: Locomotor apparatus (bones, joints, main skeletal muscles of commercial interests -cuts). Respiratory apparatus (respiratory canals, lungs, mechanical respiration, gaseous exchange). Cardio-circulatory apparatus (heart, blood vessels, systemic and pulmonary circulation, lymphatic circulation). Digestive apparatus (prehensile and preparatory organs, stomach of monogastrics, rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasus of polygastrics, small, large and rectum intestine, liver, pancreas; physiology of digestion and absorption; avian digestive tract). Urinary apparatus (kidney structure, nephron, urine ultra-filtration and re-absorption). Male reproductive apparatus (testicles, epididymis, deferent duct, penis, urethra, accessory glands, spermatogenesis, semen, structure of sperm). Female reproductive apparatus (ovaries and physiology of reproduction, fecundation, embryo nesting, placentation, embryo-sacs, pregnancy length and delivery phases; avian reproductive tract). Mammary gland (secretory cells, galactophorous ducts, gland cistern, teats; hormonal control of milk synthesis and ejection; lactation and dry period). Outlines on endocrine apparatus and main hormones (5 ECTS).
3. Raw materials of animal origin:
Meat- Main beef cattle breeds, chemical composition of meat of different livestock species, growth, fattening, yields, slaughtering, carcasses classification based on SEUROP grids, commercial cuts, meat quality parameters and main livestock management aspects conditioning meat quality and its use in the meat processing industry (1 ECTS).
Milk- Main dairy cattle breeds, chemical composition of colostrum and milk of different livestock species, milking techniques, livestock and hygiene aspects conditioning milk quality, alterations of mastitis milk, physico-chemical and technological requirements of milk for human consumption and for cheese-making production, milk protein polymorphisms and relations with the cheese- making process, lactodynamographic profiles, cheese yield and cheese yield predictive formulas (1.5 ECTS).
Eggs- Laying chicken breeds, morphology of the eggs, factors that influence laying, preservation and evaluation of egg freshness, labelling and identification marking of eggs according to EU regulations and their traceability, chemical and nutritional composition of eggs (0.5 ECTS).
Learning evaluation methods
Oral discussion on subjects listed in the teaching program and /or on technical aspects observed and discussed during in animal farms guided tours.
Learning evaluation criteria
In the oral examination, the student will have to demonstrate: (a) knowledge of the recognition of the main species/breeds suitable for meat and milk production; (b) knowledge of their anatomical parts and physiological processes related to meat, milk and egg productions; (c) knowledge of meat, milk and eggs composition, their qualitative aspects and husbandry management aspects that may affect the quality of raw materials and their use in food processing.
To pass the oral exam, the student must demonstrate an overall understanding of the content using appropriate technical terminology, and to be able to deal with deductive reasoning that enable him to create links within matter, and to have a complete mastery of the subject.
Learning measurement criteria
The final grade is attributed in thirtieths. Successful completion of the examination will lead to grades ranging from 18 to 30 “cum laude”.
Final mark allocation criteria
The oral examination consists of one chosen subject and four questions concerning the subjects; each answer will be quantified in the range 0 - 6. The degree of 30 “cum laude” is attributed when the student demonstrates complete mastery of the subject.
1. Bortolami R., Callegari E., Clavenzani P., Beghelli V., 2009. “Anatomia e fisiologia degli animali domestici” Edagricole, BO
2. Veggetti A., Falaschini A., 2009. “Anatomia, fisiologia e zoognostica” Calderini Edagricole, BO
3. Veggetti A., Falaschini A., Balasini D., Tesio F., 2015. “Basi tecnico-scientifiche di zootecnica - vol. A” Edagricole Scolastico, BO.