D3a - Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Ambientali - Guida degli insegnamenti (Syllabus)
An elementary knowledge of mathematics and physics that is acquired in the majority of secondary schools, is propaedeutic to the teaching.
The course consists of a balance of theoretical lectures (8 ECTS, 72 hours) and other activities, such as classroom practicals (4 ECTS, 36 hours). An e-learning course is available in parallel with the lectures. It includes: the educational material organised in learning units, the materials and instructions for the classroom practicals, self-evaluation tests and results, information, videos of laboratory experiments or supporting theoretic explanations.
Knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course, students will have achieved:
(a) adequate knowledge of principles and fundamentals of the experimental sciences; (b) adequate scientific and methodological knowledge of chemistry; (c) appropriate knowledge and understanding of the fundamental chemical phenomena; (d) knowledge of the main classes of organic compounds and understanding of their reactivity; (e) knowledge of the main organic reactions used in the field of food technology.
Applying knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course, students will have to:
(a) know how to use the basic knowledge on experimental sciences to approach profitably applicative disciplines; (b) possess the ability to set the mass and energy balances and apply dimensional analysis to verification; (c) understand the chemical principles underlying the instrumental investigation techniques and the laws that describe them; (d) understand the chemical principles underlying the unit operations of food technology and the laws that describe them; (e) be able to use the learned basic knowledge along the entire production chain of food.
Students will obtain: (a) independent judgment for the analysis and understanding of the various chemical phenomena related to food production; (b) the communication skills so they can clearly transfer information, ideas, problem’s solutions and techniques to specialists representative of the various and specific areas involved in the agro-food chains (engineer, biologist, chemist, nutritionist, administrator).
1. GENERAL CHEMISTRY (4 ECTS, 36 hours): Introduction to Matter: Elements and Compounds; Atoms, Molecules and Ions. The Atomic Theory of Matter: Modern View of Atomic Structure; Electronic Structure of Atoms; Atomic Orbitals; Representations of Orbitals; Orbitals in many-electron atoms; Electronic Configurations. The Periodic Table: Periodic Properties of the Elements; Sizes of Atoms; Ionization Energy; Electronic Affinities; Metals, Nonmetals and Metalloids; Group Trends. Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding: Lewis Symbols and the Octet Rule: Ionic Bonding;, Covalent bonding, Atomic and Molecular Orbitals, Bonding orbitals, Polarity of molecules, Multiple bonding: sigma & pi bonds, Delocalization of pi electrons, Drawing Lewis Structures; Resonance Structures, The Shape of Molecules, Hybridization of atomic orbitals. Metallic bonding, Intermolecular Forces. The states of the matter. Gases: Characteristics of Gases; Pressure; The Gas Law; The Ideal Gas Equation; Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures; Properties of Liquids: Viscosity and Surface Tension; Changes of State; Vapor Pressure; Phase Diagrams; Structures of Solids; Bonding in Solids. Compounds: Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds: oxides, hydroxides, metallic cations, oxygenated acids, poliatomic anions, hydrides, peroxydes, salts, coordinations compounds. Calculation of formulas for compounds. The Mole Concept: Avogadro number, The mole concept, molar mass, Stoichiometry. Solutions & Their Behavior: Solutions & units of concentration; the solution process; Raoult’s law; colligative properties. Stoichiometry: Reagents and products, Stoichiometric coefficients in equations; Limiting reactants, Percent yield, Equivalent mass, Normality, Reactions in solution: Ionic Reactions, Types of reactions, acids & bases, Redox reactions, Stoichiometry of reactions in solution. Thermodynamics: Energy Relations in Chemistry, Thermochemistry: The Nature of Energy; The first law, Heat capacity and specific heat, Enthalpy, Hess’s law, Second law of thermodynamics; Entropy; Gibbs free energy. Chemical Equilibria: Equilibrium constant and reaction quotient, LeChatelier’s principle. Aqueous equilibria; Acids and bases, Brønsted-Lowry acid-base equilibria, Lewis acid-base equilibria, pH, Kw, Ka, Kb, Hydrolysis of salts, Equilibria involving weak acids, weak bases, and salts, Common ion effect and buffer solutions; Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, Acid-base neutralization reactions. Heterogeneous Equilibria: Solubility and solubility product, Kps, Common ion effect. Electrochemistry: Oxidation and reduction; oxidation numbers; Redox equations; Cells, Half cells and half cell reactions, Half cell potentials, Nernst equation, pH meter, Electrolysis. Chemical Kinetics: Introduction, Rates of reactions, Rate equations, Collision theory, Arrhenius equation, Kinetics constant, Catalysis.
2. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (4 ECTS, 36 hours): Nucleophilicity & Basicity, Acid-Base Catalysis, The functional groups. Alkanes, Nomenclature, Constitutional Isomers, Conformational Isomers, Combustion, Substitution (of H by halogen), Cycloalkanes, Configurational Isomers, Stereoisomers, Stereochemistry, Chirality & Symmetry, Optical Activity, Configurational Nomenclature, Compounds with Several Stereogenic Centers, Fischer Projection Formulas, Achiral Diastereomers, Summary of Isomerism, Alkenes & Alkynes, Nomenclature, Geometric Isomers, Carbocations, Electrophilic Additions, Electrophilic Halogen Reagents, Other Electrophilic Reagents, Reduction, Oxidation, Hydrogenation, Acidity of Terminal Alkynes (Substitution of H), Benzene & Derivatives, Nomenclature, Resonance, Electrophilic Substitution, Reactions of Substituted Benzenes, Reaction Characteristics, Alkyl Halides, Nomenclature, General Reactivity, Substitution(of X), SN2 Mechanism, SN1 Mechanism, Elimination (of HX). Alcohols, Nomenclature, Reactions of Alcohols, Substitution of the Hydroxyl H, Substitution of the Hydroxyl Group, Elimination of Water, Oxidation of Alcohols, Reactions of Phenols, Acidity of Phenols, Oxidation to Quinones, Antioxidant activity, Ethers, Nomenclature, Reactions of Ethers, Acid Cleavage, Epoxide Reactions, Thiols & Sulfides, Sulfur Analogs of Alcohols & Ethers. Amines, Nomenclature, Properties of Amines, Basicity of Nitrogen Compounds, Reagent Bases, Reactions of Amines. Aldehydes & Ketones, Nomenclature, Occurrence of Aldehydes & Ketones, Properties of Aldehydes & Ketones, Reversible Addition Reactions, Hydration & Hemiacetal Formation, Acetal Formation, Imine Formation, Enamine Formation, Organometallic Reagents Additions, The Aldol Reaction, Ambident Enolate Anions, Carboxylic Acids, Nomenclature, Related Derivatives, Acidity, Salt Formation, Substitution of Hydroxyl Hydrogen, Substitution of the Hydroxyl Group, Reduction & Oxidation, Carboxylic Derivatives, Nomenclature, Reactions of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives, Acylic nucleophilic Substitution, Mechanism, Acidity of α C–H, The Claisen Condensation.
3. EXERCISES (4 ECTS, 36 hours): Chemical language – Chemical Reactions. Reagents and products, Stoichiometric coefficients in equations; Limiting reactants, Percent yield, Equivalent mass, Normality, Reactions in solution: Ionic Reactions, Types of reactions, Acid-base reactions, Redox reactions, Solutions, Equilibria in the aqueous phase, pH of acidic and alkaline solutions, Hydrolysis - Balance of poorly soluble compounds: solubility product, Reactions in organic chemistry.
Learning evaluation methods
The exam consists in a written test which includes two open-ended questions on the two main sections of the course, three stoichiometric exercises on the topics of practicals and 17 multiple choice questions on the whole course content. Oral discussion of the written test.
Optional tests of self-evaluation through exercises and questionnaires are available on the e-learning platform, which aims to provide students useful information about their skill level.
Learning evaluation criteria
The student have to demonstrate a thorough knowledge of the contents of the course, with the use of appropriate lexicon and the ability to apply that knowledge for solving simple problems.
Learning measurement criteria
The final mark is awarded out of thirty. The exam is passed when the grade is equal or greater than 18. It is possible to be awarded with the highest marks with honors (30 cum laude).
Final mark allocation criteria
For each question and exercise a score, that ranges from 0 to 3 points modulated on the completeness and accuracy of the answers, is given. As for the multiple-choice tests 1 point for each correct answer and 0 points for each wrong answer will be assigned. To pass the exam the sum of all scores will not be less than 18. The discussion of the written text can change the total score for a maximum of two points (both positive or negative). Praise is attributed when the score obtained from the previous sum exceeds the value 30 and the student has demonstrated full mastery of the subject.
• Chang, Goldsby • Fondamenti di Chimica Generale 2Ed • ISBN 9788838668012 • McGraw-Hill Education, Milano, (2015) € 61,00.
• Atkins -Jones • Fondamenti di Chimica Generale • ISBN 978-8808636140 • Zanichelli, Bologna, (2014) € 59,50.
• Hart , Hadad , Craine , Hart • Chimica Organica 7Ed • ISBN 978-8808193506 • Zanichelli, 2012, € 41,40.
• Gorzynski Smith • Fondamenti di chimica organica 2/ed • ISBN: 978-88-386-6825-8 • McGraw-Hill Education, Milano, (2014) € 59,00.
• Wade • Fondamenti di Chimica Organica • ISBN: 978-88-299-2300-7 • Piccin, 2013 € 35,00
All other educational material is available on the e-learning web platform.