D3a - Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Ambientali - Guida degli insegnamenti (Syllabus)
Basic knowledge of general biology, botany and agronomy.
The teaching method is based on lectures supported by slides in digital format (6 ECTS), supplied in copies to the students, and experiences in field vineyard and laboratory (3 ECTS). The course is also available in e-learning using the Moodle platform. Within this platform are available: a) teaching materials composed by learning units; b) self-assessment tests and their results; c) information and reservations for field trips educational visits.
Knowledge. The course enables students to acquire adequate basic knowledge on the biology and physiology of the grapevine, the genotypes used in viticulture and the establishing and management of the vineyard with special reference to adaptation to the new climate environment and sustainability.
Applying knowledge and understanding. The aim of the course is to develop the student ability to design new vineyards through the choice of rootstocks, scions, training and pruning systems adapted to specific environments, to manage the main vineyard operations by limiting the impact on the environment and ensuring health and safety of operators and to follow and regulate the evolution of berry ripening.
Cross-expertise: (i) making judgements: identifying the information needed to establish and manage vineyards in different environmental contexts; (ii) communications: communicate clearly and comprehensively information, ideas, problems and related technical solutions to interlocutors, either professional or not, representative of the various and specific competencies in the wine sector (winemakers, grape-growers, administrators, journalists, sommeliers, etc.).
1. Presentation of the course. The Vitaceae family, the genus Vitis, the relevance of Vitis vinifera. A brief history of viticulture and its recent evolution. The spread of viticulture in the world, in Europe and in Italy. The interaction grapevine-environment-cultural techniques at the basis of the appellation of wines. Denomination of grapevine cultivars and of the related wines (national register of grapevine varieties, the wine appellation rules) (1 ECTS).
2. Anatomy and morphology of the vine: aerial apparatus during the winter rest and after the vegetative growth (canes, buds, shoots, inflorescences and flowers, clusters and berries). The life cycle of the plant, the yield components (1 ECTS).
3. The pruning of the vine (goals, time and intensity of intervention), the contrast of acrotony (shortening of the canes, cane positioning), long and short (cane and spur) pruning, fertility of the buds along the canes, balanced pruning and crop regulation. Relationship between trellis-training systems and grapevine winter pruning. Criteria for the choice of training systems and planting distances in relation to the environment, to the cultivars and the level of mechanization (1 ECTS).
4. The major trellis-training systems and the pruning of grapevines (bush system, free cordon, GDC, VSP systems such as Guyot, umbrella system, spur-pruned-cordon, sylvoz, casarsa, over-head systems and pergolas) (1 ECTS).
5. Viticulture and environment: Site selection and cultivar choice, bioclimatic indexes. Climate and viticulture in the Marche. The grapevine rootstocks and general selection criteria. The propagation of the vine and the clonal selection (technical and legal aspects) (1 ECTS).
6. The annual cycle of the vine: dormancy, bud-burst, shoot elongation, leaf fall, seasonal evolution of carbohydrate and mineral reserves of grapevine. Seasonal patterns of root growth and the absorption of minerals. The cycle of the buds: formation, correlative inhibitions, dormancy, quiescence (1 ECTS).
7. The bud differentiation, the formation of flowers, anthesis, pollination, fertilization, fruit set. Berry growth and seed development. Veraison and ripening inception and evolution. The maturation indices and the definition of the harvest date (1 ECTS).
8. Photosynthesis, Respiration, Translocation and Transpiration. Factors that affect the grapevine photosynthesis. Assessment of the assimilative capacity of the canopy and of the vineyards.
9. Ampelography and varietal recognition (1 ECTS).
Learning evaluation methods
Oral discussion on three of the subjects listed in the teaching program. During the course, there are also going to be available self-evaluation tests (e-learning mode), in order to provide the students useful information about their skill level.
Learning evaluation criteria
The student, during the oral test, will have to prove: a) general knowledge of the grape and wine industry, viticulture evolution and genetic and environmental resources; b) knowledge of the biology and physiology of the grapevine including the morphology of its organs and their anatomical structures; c) knowledge of the vineyard management techniques (pruning, trellis-training systems, canopy management, etc.). To pass the oral exam, the student must demonstrate an overall understanding of the content using appropriate technical terminology, and to be able to deal with deductive reasoning that enable him/her to create links within matter, and to have a complete mastery of the subject.
Learning measurement criteria
The final mark is attributed in thirtieths. Successful completion of the examination will lead to grades ranging from 18 to 30 “cum laude”.
Final mark allocation criteria
The oral examination consists of three questions concerning the subjects listed in the teaching program, each of ones will be quantified in the range 0 - 10. The degree of 30 “cum laude” is attributed when the student demonstrates complete mastery of the subject.
Palliotti, Poni, Silvestroni, 2015. La nuova viticoltura, Edagricole, Bologna - Codice ISBN-978-88-506-5453-6.
Autori Vari, 2004. Viticoltura ed enologia biologica, Edagricole, Bologna - Codice ISBN88-506-4966-5.
Sansavini, Costa, Gucci, Inglese, Ramina, Xiloyannis, 2012. Arboricoltura Generale, Patron Editore, Bologna p.536, ISBN 978-88-555-3189-4.
Coombe, Dry, 2004. Viticulture Volume 1– Resources – 2nd Edition, Winetitles, Australia, Codice ISBN 0975685007
Winkler, Cook, Kliewer, Lider, 1974: General viticulture. University of California Press, Berkley.
Autori vari, 2005: Manuale di viticoltura, Edagricole, Bologna - Codice ISBN-88-5064981-9
Wednesday from 8:15 am to 10:15 am.