D3a - Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Ambientali - Guida degli insegnamenti (Syllabus)
It is expected to know the basic chemistry. It is important that students have already addressed the study and/or passed the exam in General and Organic Chemistry.
The topics of the course will be treated with the help of Power Point presentations, provided in copies to the students, both for lectures (4 CFU) that for the laboratory exercises (2 CFU).
Knowledge. The course aims to provide students with knowledge on the main chemical, chemical-physical and biological processes involved in soil formation, chemical and biological soil fertility and in the main enzymatic and biochemical mechanisms of plants in order to understand the vital role that they play in the sustainability of agricultural, forestry and natural environments.
Applying knowledge and understanding. The main aim of this course is to provide students with necessary knowledge for use of the main classification systems of soil, the assessment of soil fertility and the interactions between soil and plant.
Cross-expertise. Ability to use the knowledge acquired during the course for the study and evaluation of potential risks of environmental pollution resulting from the management of the soil-plant system.
Course presentation Pedogenesis environment. Structure and properties of silicates. Silicate hydrolysis. Pedogenesis factors. Soil colloidal properties. Structure and properties of Al and Fe Hydroxyoxides, micas, smectites, vermiculites and kaolins (1 ECTS).
Humus: extraction, fractionation, composition and physico-chemical properties. Forest soils. Forest humus (1 ECTS)
Soil Adsorbing capacity. Mechanical, biological and chemical absorption . Adsorption exchange (anionic and cationic). Soil pH and buffer power.(1 ECTS)
Enzymes: classification, characteristics, composition, co-enzymes, cofactors, prosthetic groups. Enzyme kinetics and mechanisms of inhibition (0.5 ECTS).
Photosynthesis: exogenous and endogenous factors affecting photosynthesis. Photosynthetic pigments. Structure of the thylakoid membrane. Step light of photosynthesis: the formation of ATP. Dark phase of photosynthesis: C3 and C4 cycles. Photosynthetic efficiency (1 ECTS).
Cellular respiration: glycolysis, anaerobic fermentation, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain. Nitrogen cycle: nitrogen-fixing, and into organic nitrogen mineralization, biosynthesis of glutamine. Amino-acids and proteins (1 ECTS).
Secondary metabolism: biosynthesis of phenols, pectin, cellulose, aromatic aminoacids and lignin (0.5 ECTS).
Learning evaluation methods
Final assessment will focus on an oral examination lasting about 40/60 minutes.
Learning evaluation criteria
The student will demonstrate, during the interview, that he had acquired both the knowledge of the topics covered during the course and knowing how to properly expose them with a technical-scientific language appropriate that the ability to write and comment the chemical reactions involved in chemical and biochemical mechanisms studied.
Learning measurement criteria
The oral test will be on two main questions, each of which will be evaluated with a score ranging from 0 to 5 points.
Final mark allocation criteria
The assignment of the final degree will be out of thirty and is the sum of the scores obtained in each question. The honors will be given to students who have achieved the highest rating and will have demonstrated the ability to connect the course topics.
Autori vari, Fondamenti di Chimica del suolo, Patron Editore, 2005.
M. Businelli, Principi di Chimica del suolo, Morlacchi Editore, 2001
L. Scarponi, Biochimica Agraria, Galeno Editrice, 1996
M. Maffei, Biochimica Vegetale, Piccin Nuova Libraria, 1999
Autori vari, Biochimica Agraria, Patron Editore, 2003