D3a - Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Ambientali - Guida degli insegnamenti (Syllabus)
General knowledge of Biology
The didactic method is based on ppt lectures (8 ECTS) (provided in copies to the students) and laboratory exercitations and field excursions (4 ECTS).
Knowledge and understanding.
The course enables the acquisition by the student of theoretical and practical knowledge on the structural and functional characteristics of the plant organisms: from cell level to those of organism and species
Applying knowledge and understanding.
The course develops the ability to apply the main methods for the study of plant biology useful in order to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of plant-environment system. The acquired basic knowledge initiate students to the study of systematic botany and facilitate the understanding of plant ecology content.
The knowledge therorical and methods acquired foster integration with other biological disciplines.
Introduction the Plant Biology. The levels of organization of the plant organisms.
1. Cell biology. The cell theory. The general structure of cell. Prokaryote and eukaryote cells. Main differences between plant cell and animal cell. Methods for the cell study. The eukaryote cell: structure and ultrastructure. The plasma membrane. Cytoplasm and cell organelles. Plastids: Chloroplasts, Leucoplasts and Chromoplasts. Middle lamella. Primary wall. Secondary wall. Secondary modifications of the cell wall. Vacuole and cell sap. Oxalate crystals. Water and solutes absorption: simple and facilitated diffusion, active transport, osmosis, cell turgor and plasmolysis. Cell elongation. (2ECTS)
2. Plant tissues . Cell differentiation theory. Cell aggregate and pseudotissues. General characteristics of the tissues. Primary and secondary meristematic tissues. Primary and secondary mature tissues: tegumental, parenchymatic, supporting, conducting, glandular tissues. (1ECTS)
3. Plant anatomy. General plant anatomy of the three principal organs. The metamorphosis. Plat life cycles. Steam anatomy: meristematic, elongation and differentiation zones, primary and secondary structure zones. Cambium activity. Omoxilo and eteroxilo wood. The bark. The phellogen activity. Root anatomy: radical apex, root hair region, primary and secondary structure zones. The lateral roots. Leaft anatomy: Monocotyledonous, Dicotyledonous and Coniferous. Leaf morphology and structure. Connections of the steam conducting system with the leaf's one. (4 ECTS)
4. Plant physiology. Evaporation and transpiration. The cuticular and stomatic transpiration. Water potential concept. Apoplast and symplast. The water and mineral salts carriage. Water balance . Plant adaptation to soil aridity. Organic solution carriage. The seed: structure, maturation and germination. (1 ECTS)
5. Evolution, diversity and classification of plants organisms. Speciation: new genomes origin. Species: meaning, variability and definitions. Individual and populations. Overview on the evolution of the classification methods. Systematics and taxonomy. Nomenclature. The terrestrial plants: water emersion and alternation of generation. Sporophyte and gametophyte. Tallophytae and Cormophytae. Tracheophyta. General characteristics. Systematics and phylogeny. Pteridophyta. Morphological caracteristichs. Vegetative organs origin. Reproduction. Overview on the phylogeny and systematic of the principal phyla. Spermatophyta. Description. Ovule. Pollen. Seed. Systematic and evolution. Gymnosperma. General characteristics. Overview on the phylogeny and systematic of the principal phyla. Coniferophyta: morphological caracteristichs. Reproductive system. Pollination and fertilization, seed. Cycle. Identification of some species by use dichotomous keys. Angiosperma. Morphological characteristcs of the vegetative and reproductive organs. Trunk. Root. Leaf. Flower. Inflorescence. Pollination and fertilization. Seed. Fruit. Dissemination. Cycle. Overview on the phylogeny and systematic. Dicotiledoni and Monocotiledoni. Identification of some species by the use of dichotomous keys. (4ECTS).
Learning evaluation methods
Oral examination . The student can still choose whether to support a partial written during the process of the course on the first two parts of the program: the cell (15 multiple choice questions) and plant tissues (12 multiple choice questions and one open) and then complete the examination with oral examination
Learning evaluation criteria
Knowledge on the subjects listed in the teaching program, clear and correct exposition of the content with an adequate technical and scientific language, ability to achieve appropriate connections within matter and to have a complete mastery of the subject.
Learning measurement criteria
The final vote is attributed in thirtieths.
Final mark allocation criteria
The oral test will be divided into five main questions, each of which will be evaluated using a score ranging from 0 to 30 points. The degree of 30 “cum laude” is attributed when the student demonstrates complete mastery of the subject. For the partial written will be worth the following criteria below. For the cell: 2 points for each correct answer. To the plant tissues: 2 points for each correct answer and between 0 and 6 points for the open question.
Raven P. H., Evert R. F., Eichhorn S. E., 2002.Biologia delle piante.Zanichelli editore.
Wednesday from 3 pm to 5 pm.