D3a - Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Ambientali - Guida degli insegnamenti (Syllabus)
The following topics are propaedeutic to the teaching: basic knowledge of food chemistry, biochemistry and microbiology; basics on the technologies and energy management of the agro-food factories; knowledge of the unit operations of the food processing.
The course consists of a balance of theoretical lectures (8 ECTS, 72 hours) and other activities, such as classroom practicals, carried out individually or in small groups, seminars and visits to local and national food plants and factories (4 ECTS, 36 hours, in all). The educational material, organised in learning units, is also available on the e-learning web platform.
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge and understanding:
(a) adequate knowledge and understanding about the strategies of food preservation processes in order to both ensure safety and prolong shelf-life; (b) knowledge of regulatory and technological aspects of the main sorts of preserves and semi-preserves obtained from animal and vegetable raw materials; (c) knowledge of regulations, characteristics and uses of the main functional categories of “food improvement agents” (food additives, food enzymes and food flavourings).
Applying knowledge and understanding:
(a) developing the capability of integration of information, both in horizontal way (technological, chemical, biological, and regulatory aspects involved in each unit operation) and in vertical way (reasonable sequence of unit operations along the production chain); (b) capability of carry out strategies for the optimization of a technological or biotechnological process for the production of food and beverages; (c) capability of evaluate the potentiality of innovative technologies in food processes.
(a) making judgements: capability of identify the information be needed to improve the efficiency of the processes and the quality of the final products; (b) communications: capability of clearly and exhaustively communicate notions, ideas, problems and technical solutions to interlocutors, either professional or not, representative of the various and specific competencies in the agro-food supply chain (engineers, biologists, chemists, nutritionists, administrators).
1. Overview about national and worldwide food industry (credits: 0.5 ECTS).
2: Strategies of food preservation: (2a) thermal treatments (blanching, pasteurization, heat sterilization); (2b) techniques and technologies founded on the control and manage of temperature, water activity, pH, oxygen level: concentration, drying and freeze-drying, salting and pickling, addition of sugars, acidifying, smoking, refrigeration and freezing, modified atmosphere packaging (2 ECTS).
3. Food additives, food enzymes and food flavourings: definitions, requirements, functions and range of applications. Main functional classes of food additives: preservatives, colours, emulsifiers. Food hydrocolloids: rheologic properties and uses of hydrophilic polymers of vegetable, animal, and microbial origin (starch, pectin, galactomannans, carrageenans, alginates, xanthan gum) and of animal proteins (collagen, milk proteins, plasma proteins) (3.5 ECTS).
4. Common preliminary steps in the preparation of raw fruits and vegetables: receiving, washing, sorting, removal of inedible parts (peeling, coring, de-stoning), blanching (1 ECTS).
5. Fruit and vegetable processing: tomato based products (peeled, concentrated, dehydrated); pulses processing (canning, drying, freezing); pickled and fermented vegetables (baby onions, gherkins, peppers, olives, sauerkraut; fruit juices (grapes, apple, cherry, soft fruits, pineapples, carrots) and nectars (pear, peach, apricot); citrus products (juices, essential oils); sweet fruit preserves (jams and jellies, canned fruits, candied fruits) (3 ECTS).
6. Meat and fish processing: cured ham, cooked ham, meat emulsions, tuna processing (2 ECTS).
Learning evaluation methods
Oral discussion on three of the subjects listed in the teaching program, one of which will be chosen by the student.
Learning evaluation criteria
The student will have to demonstrate: (a) sound knowledge of definitions and regulatory aspects of food preserves and semi-preserves; (b) knowledge and understanding of the reasons for the technical and technological choices that characterize the process flow-sheets; (c) sound knowledge of definitions, requirements, functions and range of applications of the main functional classes of food additives; (d) appropriate usage of the technical lexicon.
Learning measurement criteria
The final mark is attributed in thirtieths. Successful completion of the examination will lead to grades ranging from 18 to 30 with honors.
Final mark allocation criteria
The oral examination consist of three questions concerning the subjects listed in the teaching program, each of ones will be quantified in the range 0 - 10.
In order to pass the examination, the student will have to demonstrate: (a) overall understanding of the subjects; (b) appropriate usage of technical terminology. In order to obtain the best evaluation, the student will have to demonstrate: (a) in-depth knowledge and understanding of the subjects; (b) fluency in the usage of the technical lexicon; (c) ability to solve simple problems about modifications of the process parameters or the sequence of unit operations.
Carlo Pompei - La trasformazione industriale di frutta e ortaggi. Edagricole-Il sole 24 ore. Bologna. 2005.
Y. H. Hui, E. Özgül Evranuz. Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing, Second Edition. 2015, by CRC Press.
Y. H. Hui. Handbook of Meat and Meat Processing, Second Edition. 2012, by CRC Press.
Cerutti G. Residui, additivi e contaminanti degli alimenti. II edizione. Tecniche Nuove, Milano, 2006.
All other educational material is available on the e-learning web platform.